To implement the central rural work conference, the central file 1 and the national work conference on agricultural spirit, closely around the "stability of grain income structure, mass transfer efficiency way" work, vigorously promote fertilizer reduction effect, reducing pesticide pollution, actively explore the production efficiency, product safety, resource saving, environment friendly way to develop modern agriculture, the ministry of agriculture developed to fertiliser use zero growth in 2020 action plan "and" pesticides action plan for zero growth by 2020, printed and distributed to you now, please combined with the local reality, detailed implementation plan, increase the intensity of work, strengthen the implementation of responsibility, strong pushing, make sure to obtain actual effect.
The action plan for zero-growth fertilizer use by 2020
Chemical fertilizer is important agricultural production data, is grain "grain". Fertilizer in promoting food and played an irreplaceable part in the development of agricultural production, but also some problems such as excessive fertilizer application, blind application, resulting in increased cost and environmental pollution, need to improve the way of fertilization, improve the utilization rate of fertilizer, reduce the unreasonable investment, ensure the supply of grain and other major agricultural products effectively, promote the sustainable development of agriculture. To this end, the ministry of agriculture has formulated the action plan for the use of zero-growth fertilizer use by 2020.
1. Current situation and situation
(1) current situation of fertilizer application. China is a large country of fertilizer production and use. According to the national bureau of statistics, the amount of fertilizer production in 2013 was 70,370,000 tons (of the same amount), and the amount of fertilizer applied to agriculture was 59.12 million tons. Experts have analyzed that the contribution of fertilizer application to grain production in China is relatively low, which is more than 40 %. At present, there are four aspects of fertilizer application in China: one is that the per mu per mu is high. The amount of fertilizer in our crops per mu is 21.9 kg, well above the world average (8 kilograms per mu), 2.6 times that of the United States and 2.5 times the European Union. Secondly, fertilization imbalance is prominent. In the developed regions of the east, there is a large amount of fertilizer in the lower reaches of the Yangtze river and the suburbs of the urban areas, and the overfertilization of the economic horticultural crops such as vegetables and fruit trees is relatively common. Third, the utilization of organic fertilizer resources is low. At present, the total nutrient resources of our country is about 70 million tons, the actual utilization is less than 40%. Among them, the rate of nutrient return of livestock and poultry waste is about 50%, and the yield of crop straw is about 35%. Fourth, the fertilization structure imbalance. Heavy fertilizer, light organic fertilizer, heavy element fertilizer, light middle trace element fertilizer, heavy nitrogen fertilizer, light phosphate fertilizer "triple three light" problems prominent. The traditional method of artificial fertilization is still dominant, and the spread of fertilizer and the phenomenon of table application is relatively common, and the mechanical fertilization is only about 30% of the main crop area.
(2) the situation. Fertilizer unreasonable problems with China's grain production pressure based low soil fertility, cultivated land, cultivated land use intensity is high, the production of small farmers and other related, also and fertilizer production and business operation from agricultural demand, unreasonable structure of fertilizer varieties, fertilization technology backwardness, fertilizer management system is not sound, etc. Excessive fertilization and blind fertilization not only increase the cost of agricultural production and waste resources, but also result in soil acidification and soil acidification. Implementation of fertiliser use zero growth action, is promoting agricultural "transfer mode, adjust structure of important measures, but also the realistic need, which the promote reduce cost efficiency, energy conservation and emissions reduction, to safeguard national food security, agricultural product quality safety and agricultural ecological safety is of great significance.
(3) implementation feasibility. Experience from abroad, the European Union, North America, Asia, the Middle East part of the developed countries find all present rapid growth, the peak before the trend of steady growth in the fall or falling, gradually took to the weight loss efficiency, high production and efficiency of the road of sustainable development. From the reality of our country, by conducting soil testing and fertilizer are the three major grain crops nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer utilization rate reached 33%, 24% and 42%, than before the implementation of projects (2005) raised 5, 12 and 10% respectively. At the same time fertilizer utilization rate increases, the increase of fertilizer use decreases the trend. The amount of fertilizer used in the country increased by 1.3 percent in 2013, 1.1 percent and 1.5 percentage points lower than in 2012 and 2005 respectively. If the scientific fertilization measures are put in place, the quality of the cultivated land will continue to improve, the utilization of fertilizer will be increased gradually, and the goal of zero increase in fertilizer use by 2020 will be achieved.
Ii. General ideas, basic principles and objectives
(a) general train of thought
In order to ensure national food security and the effective supply of major agricultural products as the goal, firmly establish a "increase fertilizer, applying fertilizer, green fertilizer" philosophy, relying on scientific and technological progress, relying on new operators and professional agrochemical service organization, concentrated overall implementation, accelerate transformation of the mode of fertilization and deepening scientific fertilization, quality of cultivated land protection and vigorously promoted, increasing organic fertilizer resource utilization, reduce the unreasonable fertilizer inputs, strengthen the publicity and training management and fertilizer use, environmental protection, high efficiency and high quality sustainable development road, promote grain production and farmers' income and the ecological environment security.
(ii) basic principles
The first is to ensure production and efficiency. In order to reduce the unreasonable input of chemical fertilizer, the utilization of fertilizer should be improved through the transformation of fertilizer utilization, so as to ensure stable production of grain, sustainable increase of farmers and sustainable development of agriculture.
Second, it is appropriate and gradual. According to the needs of different regions and different crops to produce actual and fertilization needs, we should strengthen the classification guidance, and make the target tasks of the sub-stage, sub-region and sub-crop control, and steadily promote the implementation of the measures.
Third, overall consideration and comprehensive application. We will comprehensively consider the production factors and farming systems of soil and fertilizer, and apply administrative, economic, technical and legal measures to promote scientific fertilization in accordance with the requirements of agricultural and agricultural arts.
Fourth, government led and participated in various parties. Adhere to government-led, main, social participation, the farmer main body, enterprise innovation implementation methods, fully mobilize promotion, research, teaching, enterprises and farmers' enthusiasm, the construction of a resultant force to promote long-term mechanism.
(iii) target tasks
By 2020, the scientific fertilization management and technology system will be preliminarily established, and the level of scientific fertilization will be significantly improved. From 2015 to 2019, the annual growth rate of fertilizer use will be kept within 1%. We aim to achieve zero growth in the use of major crop fertilizers by 2020.
First, the fertilization structure is further optimized. By 2020, the nutrient structures such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements tend to be reasonable, and the organic fertilizer resources are properly utilized. The technology coverage of soil testing is over 90%. The rate of nutrient replantation of livestock and poultry manure reached 60% and increased by ten percentage points; The yield rate of crop straw nutrition was 60 % and 25 %.
Second, the method of fertilization is further improved. By 2020, blind fertilization and overfertilization will be largely contained and traditional fertilization methods will be changed. Mechanical fertilization accounted for more than 40% of the main crop area and increased by 10 percentage points; The integrated technology of water and fertilizer has been promoted to an area of 150 million mu and an increase of 80 million mu.
Third, the utilization rate of fertilizer has been steadily improved. Since 2015, the utilization ratio of major crop fertilizers has increased by more than one percentage point per year, and the utilization rate of major crop fertilizers has reached more than 40 percent by 2020.
Iii. Technical path and regional focus
(1) technical path
One is essence, which is to promote precise fertilization. According to the soil conditions, crop yield potential and nutrient comprehensive management requirements of different regions, it is reasonable to set the limits of fertilization limit for each area and crop area, and reduce the blind fertilization behavior.
The second is to adjust the use of chemical fertilizer. Optimizing the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and promoting the combination of a large number of elements and microelements. It is necessary to adapt to the development of modern agriculture, guide the optimization and upgrading of fertilizer products, and vigorously promote the efficient new fertilizer.
The third is to improve the way of fertilization. We will vigorously promote the fertilization of soil test and improve the consciousness and skills of farmers' scientific fertilization. The research and development of the application of fertilizer equipment, the change of the table, the application of the mechanical depth, the water fertilizer integration, the leaf spraying and so on.
The fourth is the replacement of chemical fertilizer. Organic inorganic combination is realized by using organic nutrient resources rationally and substituting fertilizer with organic fertilizer. We will increase the basic soil fertility of cultivated land and replace the foreign fertilizer nutrient input with the inner nutrient of cultivated land.
(ii) regional priorities
Northeast. Fertilizer principle: control nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron, iron, molybdenum and other trace elements fertilizer. Main measures: combine deep pine and protective tillage, increase straw mulching and increase organic fertilizer; Appropriate rotation of soybean and maize in suitable region and the rhizobia in soybean, peanut and other crops; Promote the technology of chemical fertilizer machinery, timely and right amount of fertilizer; High efficiency and sustained-release fertilizer and water fertilizer integration technology in dry area.
Huanghuaihai area. Principle of fertilization: reducing nitrogen, controlling phosphorus, stabilizing potassium, supplementing the trace elements in sulfur, zinc, iron, manganese and boron. Main measures: periodic deep deep loosening and conservation tillage, the implementation of wheat, corn straw returned, popularizing the fertilizer, organic fertilizer, promotion of corn seed manure simulcasting, cotton machinery and fertilizer, pay attention to the wheat fertilizer, nitrogen backwards and gush out "three prevention" technology; Vegetables and fruit trees attach importance to organic inorganic fertilizer and effectively control the amount of nitrogen phosphate fertilizer. Facilities agriculture applied straw and conditioner to improve salinized soil and promote the integration of water and fertilizer; Use of lime and other conditioner to improve the soil and develop orchard green manure.
The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river. Principle of fertilization: reducing nitrogen, controlling phosphorus, stabilizing potassium, and applying the trace elements in sulfur, zinc and boron. Main measures: to promote the technology of straw remanding, popularize the formula fertilizer, increase the organic fertilizer, restore the green manure of the winter leisure field, and promote the green manure of the fruit tea garden; Using calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon calcium and other alkaline conditioning agents to improve acidification soil, efficient economic horticulture crops to promote the integration of water and fertilizer technology.
South China. Principle of fertilization: reduce nitrogen, stabilize phosphorus, stabilize potassium, and cooperate with trace elements in calcium, magnesium, zinc and boron. Main measures: to popularize the technology of straw remanding, popularize the formula fertilizer, increase the organic fertilizer, and restore the cultivation of green manure in winter idle fields. The soil was improved by calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, silicon calcium and other alkaline conditioner. It pays attention to the combination of fertilization techniques and light cultivation techniques, and efficient and economical horticultural crops to promote the integration of water and fertilizer.
Southwest. Fertilizer principle: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, combined with the trace elements in boron, molybdenum, magnesium, sulfur, zinc and calcium. Main measures: to popularize the technology of straw remanding, pay attention to the rational utilization of bog manure and livestock and poultry waste, and restore the planting of green manure in winter idle fields; Popularizing the fertilizer, organic fertilizer, pay attention to the use of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, lime, calcium silicon, such as alkaline conditioners improved soil acidification, mountain high efficient economic crops and horticultural crops cucumber in technology.
Northwest. Principle of fertilization: to balance the resources of water and fertilizer, to use water to fertilize water, to make water, to stabilize nitrogen, to stabilize phosphorus, to adjust potassium, to cooperate with trace elements in zinc and boron. Main measures: to promote efficient and sustained-release fertilizer, to implement protective tillage, straw remanding, to popularize formula fertilizer, and to increase organic fertilizer; In cotton, fruit tree, potato and other crops such as drip irrigation, water fertilizer integration and other efficient water-saving irrigation technologies; In combination with the engineering measures, the saline-alkali land was improved by using gypsum and other conditioner.
Iv. Key tasks
(1) to promote the application of soil test. On the basis of summarizing the experience, the innovative implementation method, accelerating the application of the results, and advancing the soil testing formula fertilization on a larger scale and higher level. First, expand implementation scope. To strengthen basic work, we will continue to do a food crop of soil fertilizer at the same time, expand the facility agriculture and economic horticultural crops such as vegetables, fruit trees, tea on the application of basic realizing a complete coverage of major crops measured soil fertilizer. Second, we will strengthen the synergy between farmers and enterprises. Fully mobilize the enthusiasm of enterprises involved in measuring soil fertilizer, screening a number of good reputation, strength enterprises in-depth cooperation, in accordance with the "according to their" "traditional" "Chinese herbal medicine decoction" "doctor" and so on four patterns formula fertilizer village and household to field. Third, innovation service mechanism. Actively explore the public welfare service and operating service, an effective mode of government purchase services, support the development of specialized and socialized service organizations, providing farmers with system, forward, TongGong, "four unification" service system. The formulation and release mechanism of the innovative fertilizer formula, the expert consultation system for soil testing and fertilizer application, and the promotion of the application of fertilizer application with the help of modern information technology.
(ii) promoting the transformation of fertilization mode. Give full play to the large grain, family farms, specialized cooperatives new operators demonstration leading role, strengthen the technical training and guidance services, vigorously promote the use of advanced technology, promote the fertilization way transformation. One is to promote mechanical fertilization. According to the principle of agricultural farm machinery, basal fertilizer as a whole, speed up the application of fertilizer machinery research and development, adjust measures to local conditions to promote fertilizer machinery deep soil, fertilizer, seed manure with information technology, such as nutrient volatilization and loss reduction. Second, promote the integration of water and fertilizer. In combination with efficient water-saving irrigation, the demonstration popularize the technology such as drip irrigation fertilization, sprinkler irrigation, etc., to promote the fertilizer and water resource utilization efficiency. Third, the promotion of appropriate fertilization techniques. The proportion of the base fertilizer should be reasonably determined, and the application of soil, seedling, water and time - stage fertilization. To promote the application of wheat, rice leaf spray and tree root fertilization techniques.
(3) to promote the application of new fertilizer technologies. Based on the needs of agricultural production, integrate scientific research, teaching, promotion and enterprise strength, step up r&d investment, track international frontier technologies, and carry out joint efforts. First, we will strengthen research and development. Formed a batch of production, with the combination of research and development platform, key research on the high-efficient and high-yield crop fertilization technique, available and slow action, a large number of nutrients and trace elements, organic and inorganic, morphological and functional integration of new products and equipment research and development. Second, we will accelerate the promotion of new products. Demonstrated and slow-release fertilizer, water soluble fertilizer, liquid fertilizer, foliar fertilizer, biological fertilizer and soil conditioner and high efficiency new type fertilizer, constantly improve the fertilizer utilization ratio and promote fertilizer industry transformation and upgrading. Third, the integrated promotion of high efficient fertilization technology model. Combined with high yield and creation of a green production mode and research, according to the soil nutrient status and crop fertilizer, points area and crop to formulate scientific fertilization instruction manual, integration to promote a batch of high yield, high efficiency, ecological fertilization technology pattern.
(4) promote the utilization of organic fertilizer resources. We should adapt to the development of modern agriculture and the characteristics of the agricultural operation system in China, actively explore the effective mode of the utilization of organic nutrient resources, increase support and encourage the farmers to increase their organic fertilizer. First, promote the utilization of organic fertilizer resources. We will support the use of livestock and poultry excrement to produce organic fertilizer, promote scale breeding, and the socialization of slag transportation, and support farmers to accumulate farm manure and use organic fertilizer. Second, to promote the nutrient return of straw. Promotion of returning straw crushing returning, fast rotten, returning GuoFu, such as technology, research and development with straw crushing, rotten, tilling the soil, land leveling agent application functions such as compound operation equipments, make the straw to the field, in the field. Third, planting green fertilizer for local conditions. Make full use of the southern winter garden and fruit tea garden to enrich the hot water resources, promote the planting of green manure. In the conditional areas, the farmers were directed to use the rhizobium to promote the soil of soybean crops such as peanuts, soybean and alfalfa.
Improve the quality of cultivated land. We will speed up the construction of high-standard farmland, improve the facilities for water conservancy facilities and improve the basic conditions for farmland. The land quality protection and improvement action of cultivated land, the improvement of soil, the soil fertility, the control and decontamination, the treatment of saline alkali, the transformation of low-yielding farmland, the general improvement of the land power level. We will strive to increase the basic soil capacity of arable land by 0.5 levels by 2020, increase the content of soil organic matter by 0.2 percentage points, and effectively control the acidification, salinization and pollution of cultivated land. By strengthening the quality of cultivated land and improving the basic production capacity of cultivated land, we will ensure steady development of grain and agricultural production while reducing fertilizer input.
(1) strengthening of organizational leadership. The ministry of agriculture was established by the head of the department