Biological organic fertilizer refers to a specific function microorganism and mainly in animal and plant residues, such as livestock and poultry dung and crop stalks, etc.) as the source and the disposal, rotten organic material compound and become a kind of microbial fertilizer and organic fertilizer effect of fertilizer. Biological organic fertilizer is of great significance to realize resource-saving and environment-friendly society, which is the inevitable choice to realize sustainable agricultural development.
1. Research background of biological organic fertilizer
1.1 status of China's fertilizer industry
Fertilizer is an important agricultural production information, and the sustainable development of agriculture cannot be separated from fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer is widely used in production because of its rich nutrient content and remarkable effect. At present, China ranks first in the world in fertilizer production and usage. In terms of production, except potassium chloride, other major fertilizer varieties have been overrepresented. In the presence of fertilizer applications, unreasonable use structure, excessive application and the problem of low utilization ratio, specific performance for farmers in the process of production is only pay attention to the use of fertilizer, for organic fertilizer and microbial fertilizer is despised, and applied in order to get better, blindly increase the applying fertilizer content.
The amount of fertilizer applied to world crops is 120 kg/hm2, and the amount of fertilizer applied in China is 328.5 kg/hm2, which is well above the world average. Excessive use of chemical fertilizer, blind application brings cost increase, environmental pollution, soil degradation and other problems.
Soil is the most important natural resource in a country. Shen qirong think soil foundation soil is the key factor to realize crop yield potential, for every kilogram of fertilizer in the average yield of effect on different crops, 1975 for 25 kg of grain/kg, 15 kg oil/kg fertilizers fertilizer, 10 kg of cotton/kg fertilizer; In 2008, 8 ~ 9 kg of grain/kg fertilizer, 6 ~ 7 kg of oil/kg fertilizer, 5 ~ 6 kg of cotton/kg fertilizer. Fertilizer reward fell sharply shows that with the long-term use of chemical fertilizers, soil productivity is waning, the basis of foundation soil fertility and soil weakening has become affect China's agricultural sustainable development and an important crop yield, the limiting factor.
As the public about the environment and soil recycling the gradual improvement of the cognition, traditional chemical fertilizers cannot meet the needs of agricultural development, to realize the sustainable development of agricultural products, development of efficient environmental protection fertilizer is imperative.
1.2 basic conditions of agricultural waste in China
Agricultural waste refers to the organic material discarded during agricultural production, mainly including crop straw and livestock and poultry excrement. China is a big agricultural country and the amount of agricultural waste is huge. These wastes are both valuable resources and serious sources of pollution. If they are not properly handled, they will cause environmental pollution and ecological deterioration.
China is one of the countries with the most abundant straw resources. According to the experts' estimates, it can produce more than 900 million t straw every year. However, the utilization of straw is not high, and about 20% of the straw is decomposed or burned every year, which not only causes the waste of resources, but also causes great harm to the environment.
With the rapid development of livestock and poultry industry in China, the yield of livestock and poultry droppings is increasing rapidly. According to the study, China's livestock and poultry droppings produced more than 1.4 billion t in 1980, 21.21 billion t in 2011, and 28.7.5 billion t and 37.4.3 billion t respectively in 2020 and 2030 respectively. However, most livestock manure is not fully utilized at this stage. According to a survey, at present China's large livestock and poultry farms of livestock and poultry waste disposal technology and ability is insufficient, plus subjective also don't want to because of dealing with the waste and waste liquid to increase more production cost, cause breeding places of livestock and poultry manure and wastewater for direct emissions, more bring about great negative influence to the environment, threaten the safety and health of human beings.
Therefore, it is of great significance for the sustainable development of China's agriculture to actively explore the ways in which agricultural waste resources can be utilized, and make it a benefit and a treasure.
1.3 biological organic fertilizer is an inevitable choice for sustainable agricultural development
Based on the present status of the fertilizer use and agricultural waste, actively seeking efficient environmental protection fertilizer substitutes, to explore the way of agricultural waste resource utilization, has become a domestic and international agricultural research hot spot. Under this background, the biological organic fertilizer with its unique advantages for the agricultural waste and crop growth built a bridge, open up gives a in "agricultural waste - biological organic fertilizer and crop" for the circulation mode of sustainable development path.
First of all, the application of biological organic fertilizer is an important way to improve soil foundation soil and improve the quality of agricultural products. Biological organic fertilizer development and production of the original intention is integrated the advantages of organic fertilizer and biological fertilizer, helps increase crop yield, and fertilizer of soil, regulation of soil micro ecological balance, and reduce the inorganic fertilizer, fundamentally improve the quality of agricultural products, in accordance with Chinese agricultural sustainable development and the direction of the green agricultural production.
Secondly, the production of bio-organic fertilizer is an important means for the resource utilization of agricultural wastes. Agricultural waste contains abundant organic nutrients, crop growth necessary nutrition elements and will be made on the resource utilization of biological organic fertilizer, through the role of microbial organic mineral, the humification and harmless, for crop absorption use, can not only alleviate the pressure of the agricultural waste to the environment, can also to obtain certain economic benefits.
To sum up, bio-organic fertilizer, as an efficient and pollution-free environmental protection product, is an inevitable choice for agricultural sustainable development.
The advantages and mechanism of biological organic fertilizer
2.1 advantages of biological organic fertilizer
Biological organic fertilizer is a kind of organic fertilizer which is made by adding functional microbial bacteria to the decomposed materials on the basis of composting. Compared with other fertilizers, it has the advantages of fertilizer soil and improving product quality.
Compared with chemical fertilizer, biological organic fertilizer nutrients is more complete, the long-term use can effectively improve soil, regulate soil and rhizosphere micro ecological balance, improve crop disease and insect resistance, improve the quality of products.
Fundamental advantage compared with farmyard manure, biological organic fertilizer was: functional bacteria in biological organic fertilizer to improve soil fertility, promote crop growth has certain effect, and farmyard manure generated by natural fermentation, does not have advantage function, special effects.
Compared with bio-bacterial manure, biological organic fertilizer containing functional bacteria and organic matter, organic matter in addition to soil improvement, its itself is the functional bacteria living environment, function after plowing soil bacteria colonization and easily work; However, the microbial fertilizer only contains functional bacteria, and the functional bacteria in them may not be suitable for some soil environment, which can not survive or play a role. On the other hand, biological organic fertilizers are cheaper than biological fertilizer.
2.2 the mechanism of biological organic fertilizer
2.2.1 the role of fermentation bacteria and functional bacteria
After the application of bio-organic fertilizer, the fermentation bacteria and functional bacteria in the crops multiply, which has a significant effect on improving soil, promoting the growth of crops and reducing the diseases of crops. The main reasons are:
A beneficial microbes in the soil and fertilizer were a large number of dominant population colonization formation, inhibit the growth of harmful microbes other breed, even for part of interact pathogenic microorganisms, in order to reduce the opportunity of infection crop rhizosphere.
2. Functional bacteria can improve soil fertility, such as fertilizing fertilizer with nitrogen-containing microorganisms, which can increase the source of nitrogen in soil; Using fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium, the microorganisms can decompose the difficult phosphorus and potassium in the soil so that the crops can be used.
Many microbial strains in fertilizer can produce beneficial metabolites to crops during the growth and reproduction process, which can stimulate the growth of crops and enhance their resistance to disease.
2.2.2 the role of physiological active substances
Biological organic fertilizer rich in a variety of physiological active substances, such as vitamins, amino acids, nucleic acids, indole acetic acid, gibberellin and other physiological active substances, can stimulate crop root growth, improve the ability of crop photosynthesis, make the crop root system developed, robust growth; For example, various organic acids and enzymes can be decomposed into various complex organic compounds and rapidly activated soil nutrients to increase effective nutrients for crop uptake and utilization. For example, the antibiotic substance can improve the disease resistance of crops.
2.2.3 the role of organic inorganic nutrients
Both in biological organic fertilizer contains amino acids, protein, sugar, fat and other organic ingredients, also containing N, P, K, and beneficial to crop growth in the amount of elements (Ca, Mg, S, etc.) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu and zinc, Mo, etc.). These nutrients can not only be used for direct absorption of crops, but also can improve soil fertility, water retention, buffer and ventilation, and provide a good environment for crops.
The development status of biological organic fertilizer
3.1 production status of biological organic fertilizer
3.1.1 production enterprises
Nanjing agricultural university professor shen qirong mentioned in an interview at the end of 2014, China biological fertilizer or biological organic fertilizer enterprises, more than 300, 2058 registered products, the average enterprise capacity is small. Most of these enterprises have no production conditions, and the production conditions, technical level and production process of each manufacturer are different, and the product quality is uneven.
3.1.2 production and use of bacteria
The merits of the quality of biological organic fertilizer containing probiotics mainly depend on the strength and the number of living bacterium, the current commonly used in the production of biological organic fertilizer, the strong activity and high temperature resistance, high permeability, drought resistance, such as strong strain, and in the process of production to consider the interaction between various bacteria agent, do not arbitrarily mixed. The role of microorganism in production can be divided into fermented and functional bacteria. Fermentation bacteria more composed of composite strains, with promoting materials decomposition, rotten, deodorization functions, commonly used strains of yeast, photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, actinomyces, penicillium, trichoderma viride, rhizopus, etc; Functional bacteria are microorganisms that can play specific fertilizer effects in the product. They are mainly used for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, phosphorous bacteria, silicate bacteria and so on.
3.1.3 production process
The production of bio-organic fertilizer mainly includes fermentation bacteria to promote the process of material rot, secondary fermentation of functional bacteria and the process of finished products. Through fermentation, the complete rot of materials is the key part of the whole production. In the fermented and decomposed stage, most enterprises adopt the grooved pile fermentation method. Water, C/N ratio, temperature, pH, ventilation and other process parameters directly affect the degree of rot and fermentation cycle. After being completely rotten material, add azotobacter, soluble phosphorus bacteria, the composite function such as releasing bacteria flora for secondary fermentation, by controlling the fermentation conditions of the good number of living bacterium, improve the product so as to achieve the enhancement purpose to the biological organic fertilizer fertilizer effect. After fermentation, in order to improve the commodity and the survival rate of beneficial microorganism in the product, the finished products are more than the disk granulation and the low-temperature drying process is better.
3.2 application status of biological organic fertilizer
At present, the domestic farmers use biological organic fertilizer's enthusiasm is not high, biological organic fertilizer utilization rate is relatively low, mainly in the vegetables, fruit, Chinese herbal medicine, tobacco, such as high value-added economic application on crops. But with the improvement of people's consumption level and safety consciousness, the demand for green organic agricultural products is increasing, and bio-organic fertilizer will become the inevitable choice for agricultural production.
At present, the biological organic fertilizer in some ecological demonstration area, green and organic agricultural products base application has achieved good results, the popularization and application of biological organic fertilizer in the future is a good demonstration effect.
3.2.1 the effect of biological organic fertilizer on crop yield
Compared with the equivalent of the fertilizer, applying fertilizer can make the watermelon, tomato, Chinese cabbage, vegetables, the yield increased by 25.5%, 35.9%, 41.6% and 35.9% respectively, and reached a significant level, the hot pepper, cauliflower, cotton, rice also significantly increase yield (table 1). According to xia biao, in comparison with the equivalent phosphatide, the application of amms can increase peanut production by 33 percent.
3.2.2 the effect of biological organic fertilizer on crop quality
Compared with single fertilisers, the application of biological organic fertilizer can significantly increase the diameter, single (fruit) of cabbage and watermelon. It also improves the quality of tomatoes and peppers, and increases the amount of vitamin C and sugar in tomatoes and peppers. By studying the influence of different fertilization methods on lettuce quality, found that use of arms biological organic fertilizer can increase the lettuce vitamin C content, total acid, sugar acid ratio increased significantly, at the same time can significantly reduce the nitrate content of easily induced cancer (table 2), in improving the lettuce on the palate, it is also important to improve product safety.
3.2.3 the effect of biological organic fertilizer on the prevention and control of soil borne diseases
Numerous studies at home and abroad show that the application of biological organic fertilizer can effectively prevent and cure soil diseases. The field control effect of bacillus bacillus, which has antagonistic effect on blight, reached 73%. By bacillus subtilis and Ⅰ Ⅱ - 36-23 respectively eggplant special biological fertilizer made of BIO - 36 and BIO - 23, it has been verified by pot experiment, the two fertilizer can effectively restrain eggplant bacterial wilt, disease rate were 96% and 91% respectively. At present, biological organic fertilizer is effective in preventing and controlling the diseases of vegetables, fruits, tobacco and other crops. It is an important and effective way to prevent and control soil diseases.
The development trend of biological organic fertilizer
4.1 development countermeasures
At present, the world is paying close attention to the sustainable development of agriculture and increasing the development, production and application of biological organic fertilizer. Although the organic fertilizer industry in China has some development, it still has some deficiencies and needs to improve. In the future, the development of China's bio-organic fertilizer should be carried out in the following three aspects.
4.1.1 improve product quality
To improve the quality of bio-organic fertilizer products, we mainly start from three aspects of breeding, process optimization and development of new products.
In the breeding of strains, should be increased to promote root growth, transformation of soil nutrients, prevention and control of soil spread diseases, cuts and passivation rhizosphere poisonous and harmful material such as a specific function of mining and utilization of agricultural resources microorganism strains. In addition, in order to ensure the high biological activity of products in processing, transportation, storage and other processes, the application of the resistance strong bacillus should be strengthened.
In the research and development and process optimization, set up different resource utilization technology and composting of organic solid wastes process, according to different sources of waste, build form a complete set of process and technology, in order to meet the changing demand utilization of organic wastes industry. At the same time, optimize the technological parameters, improve the product quality, shorten the production cycle and reduce the production cost.
In the development of new products, combining production practice, more innovation. In 2014, professor shen qiong mentioned that in the development of shandong microbial fertilizer development peak BBS, the future should strengthen the development and production of new fertilizer products - whole - yuan bio-organic fertilizer. The whole yuan organic fertilizer refers to a new kind of bio-organic fertilizer that integrates organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer (including quick-acting fertilizer, controlled release fertilizer, stable chemical fertilizer) and biological fertilizer. Simply put, it is a fertilizer containing inorganic nutrients, functional bacteria and organic matter. It can provide enough nutrients to the crop already, also can increase the beneficial bacteria and organic matter in soil, soil improvement of microflora, makes it have a disease of soil, soil nutrient transformation slower, gradually became healthy soil, soil nutrient transformation of fast. The future should strengthen the new type of total organic fertilizer